Bidomain LN crystal surface after reduction annealing: (a) topography of elongated trench replicating the CDW, (b) c-AFM visualization of as-annealed CDW, probe bias +7 V and (c) c-AFM visualization of as-exposed CDW, probe bias +10 V.

  Part of: Kislyuk AM, Ilina TS, Kubasov IV, Kiselev DA, Temirov АA, Turutin AV, Shportenko AS, Malinkovich MD, Parkhomenko YuN (2022) Degradation of the electrical conductivity of charged domain walls in reduced lithium niobate crystals. Modern Electronic Materials 8(1): 15-22.